He does not dwell on sources of income, most of which he had already analytically described in the second volume, although from the point of view of the taxpayer, in the form of an overview of the various taxes inflicted on the population feudal and ecclesiastic taxes, local taxes, the prebends of judges and officials, taxes alienated to private holders, etc. Galanti does not comment on the data he lists in his table.
He does not indicate total military expense, but the calculation would not have been excessively difficult: The reference here is to Giuseppe Having later realized and harshly paid for the consequences of the general incomprehension of his readership and the government itself, he may have felt the need to place himself and his work in a less equivocal intellectual and political position, and thus sought to trace back to the king the ultimate responsibility for the publication of the royal secrets.
More precisely, a second X of the first edition Galanti was prevented from completing the second edition of his work. G alanti , Henceforth cited as Nuova descrizione. Nuova descrizione , t. I, Prefazione , p. Hood , , p. Baume , , p. II, Prefazione , p. The category has been applied to Galanti himself, although only extemporaneously for example, in I.
Manninen , , p. The right of citizens to check public expenditure was first formulated in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen of Goutal-Arnal , , p. A notion first systematically formulated by Bentham, which held sway throughout the nineteenth and twentieth century, and has recently undergone deep revision. Landi , the quote is on p. In general, economists only belatedly designated public opinion as their interlocutor, as J.
On the circulation of economic information in general, see also D. Placanica , , p. Ciccolella , , p.
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On Genovesi, see at least E. Napoli , , p. Perna , , p. Nuova geografia di Ant. Venturi , , p. Falardo , , p. On the dating of the first volume to or the early months of , cf. Barra , , p. Garner , , p. He was greeted with enthusiasm by the Neapolitan intellectual circles, who placed in him their hopes for reform and dialogue with the government cf. Chiosi , , p. Villani , , p. Note by Francesco Longano in J. Melon , , p. Christ's example challenges all notions of reciprocity and status gain. In 2 Corinthians 8: At some point in the future it may be the other way round 'so that their abundance may be for your need'.
This principle is motivated by a quotation from the Exodus story of God's provision for Israel. This is the grand narrative to which the Corinthians are or should be indebted. The need of the Christians of Jerusalem is a temporary matter and not caused by any inherent character weakness or otherwise.
Paul then mentions several other people who are also involved in the collection.
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It is far from being a private project of Paul's directed at the Corinthians' money! Again Paul emphasises transparency vs.
Paul's co-worker Titus shares the same eagerness for the Corinthians as Paul, an assurance of his affection for them and is on his way to Corinth of his own accord v. Titus fully identifies with this project and is convinced of the Corinthians' readiness and generosity. He will be accompanied by an unnamed Christian, sent by Paul, who is famous among all the churches for his proclamation of the good news for discussion of his identity, see Walker The Corinthians had better not disappoint a man thus qualified!
In addition, this brother: Other churches fully participate in the collection enterprise and have already appointed this delegate to go with Paul to Jerusalem. Elsewhere Christians fully accept Paul's authority and join this project.http://myvpn.crosstalksolutions.com/24.php
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Paul leaves no doubt that elsewhere, Christians - be they exemplary individuals of something as wide as 'all the churches' - have no suspicions regarding the apostle and his financial policies. This prominent Christian and the other two men can also serve as independent witnesses to the Corinthians and the churches who sent him regarding the integrity of Paul and later on of the events during the journey and in Jerusalem.
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There is also an element of threat in Paul's references to 'all the churches' and 'the churches': Far from being a project to enhance Paul's personal status, the collection's prime purpose is 'for the glory of the Lord himself' and 'to show our goodwill' probably an inclusive plural: Paul and all the other participants, v. Neither is this act of benefaction designed to bring recognition and honour to the donors which would have been the purpose of ancient benefaction.
Its purpose is for the glory of the Lord himself. Therefore generous participation is mandatory.
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The gratitude of the recipients will be directed primarily to God 'but also overflows with many thanksgivings to God', 2 Cor 9: That has to suffice for the donors. At the same time, God will provide every blessing in return 2 Cor 9: Paul openly asserts his concern for his integrity and full transparency in the matter: We intend that no one should blame us about this generous gift that we are administering, for we intend to do what is right not only in the Lord's sight [Paul's primary concern; the Lord cannot be fooled by people - neither by Paul nor by the Corinthians!
Thus the Corinthians should dismiss their reservations and those of the opponents concerning Paul and wholeheartedly participate. In addition to Titus and the unnamed brother, Paul will send even another Christian to Corinth, whom he has often tested and found eager in many matters.
This is a warm recommendation. Now this trustworthy and proven brother is more eager than ever to come to Corinth and be involved there in the preparation of the collection because of his great confidence in the Corinthians v. The eagerness of both men and the confidence which they have in the Corinthians, puts pressure on the Corinthians to not disappoint. Whilst Paul's own relationship with the Corinthians was strained for several reasons and his status disputed by his opponents in the congregation amply indicated in both letters , this man is eager and fully confident in the Corinthians.
He decided to send these men, whose presence would be a continuous reminder of his request and their obligation.
However, even this discreet pressure might be resented by the Corinthians as interference in their internal affairs. Paul's nervousness becomes apparent in his presentation of Titus. Paul emphasises that he is not really sending Titus, as 1 Corinthians 8: Titus returns to Corinth voluntarily in response to Paul's appeal 8: Paul closes with a warm recommendation of Titus: Paul is not trying to exploit the Corinthians for his purposes, but to minister to them through these men: These other two men are 'messengers for the churches, the glory of Christ' v.
Far more is behind their impending visit to Corinth than merely Paul: In view of these visitors and witnesses and the wide ecumenical perspective which they constitute, Paul admonishes the Corinthians once more: Generous participation in the collection is an opportunity for them to prove their love of the Lord and of their fellow Christians. They have already received honour through him and more is in store for them! Now they had better not let Paul down.
The response of the Corinthians is a matter before all the churches: Again, there is concern beyond local confines for the force of this argument, see Stenschke As Paul recommends these men, so he would also recommend the Corinthians in the future if they do as is expected of them. In 2 Corinthians 9: He acknowledges the Corinthians' virtues: Paul has already boasted about this eagerness of the Corinthians to the Christians of Macedonia and thus enhanced their status within the wider Christian community, 'which is the subject of my boasting about you to the people of Macedonia, saying Achaia has been ready since last year' v.
Paul carefully avoids direct criticism. He explicitly writes that he is not ordering them to contribute 8: The Macedonians' exemplary response is introduced in such a way as to awaken the Corinthians' self-respect to become an internal incentive. In order to remove any concern on their part as to the sum expected, Paul emphasises that their attitude is more important than the actual sum 8: Yet near the end Paul highlights the possibility that he and the Corinthians might be humiliated by the much poorer Macedonians 9: Whilst Paul immediately wants to exclude any hint of moral blackmail by denying that he wants to extort money from them 9: By mentioning the Macedonian Christians to the Corinthians, Paul indicates that he readily informs and praises the good that other Christians do and in this way bestows honour on them.
Although participation in the collection will not serve to enhance local status, elsewhere this surely happens among the wider Christian community.
Paul's earlier report of the Achaians' zeal including the Corinthians in contributing to the collection, has stirred up most of the Macedonians in their participation at the beginning of chapter 8, Paul praised the Macedonians to the Corinthians in order to spur them on. This is the background to Paul's sending of the three brothers: But I am sending the brothers in order that our boasting about you [to the Macedonians] may not prove to have been empty in this case, so that you may be ready, as I said [to the Macedonians and perhaps others] you would be; otherwise, if some Macedonians come with me [to Corinth, in addition to the three brothers?
So I thought it necessary to urge the brothers to go on ahead to you, and arrange in advance for this bountiful gift that you have promised [a reminder of their previous commitment], so that it may be ready as a voluntary gift and not as an extortion. They have every reason to give cheerfully: For their generosity, they will be in every way enriched by God v. There will be thanksgiving by the recipients, not addressed to the Corinthians, but to God v. By sharing in this ministry, they glorify God by their obedience to the confession of the Gospel of Christ, the Jewish Messiah, and they glorify God by their generosity in sharing with the Christians of Jerusalem and all other Christians v.
In addition to all the spiritual benefits, the recipients will long for the Corinthians and pray for them v. In view of early Jewish views of Gentiles, this longing of the Jewish Christians for Gentile Christians is all the more remarkable. Whilst Paul's Judaising opponents in Corinth make demands of the Corinthians, these Jewish Christians would intercede for them.
In closing, I summarise how Paul addresses the five obstacles which we identified above. Paul shows to the Corinthians that they are part of the larger entity of the Christian community and should act accordingly.
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